emmer n : hard red wheat grown especially in Russia and Germany; in United States as stock feed [syn: starch wheat, two-grain spelt, Triticum dicoccum]
- A variety of wheat.
- bucket (container)
Emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccon), also known as farro''' especially in Italy, is a low yielding, awned wheat. It was one of the first crops domesticated in the Near East. It was widely cultivated in the ancient world, but is now a relict crop in mountainous regions of Europe and Asia.
TaxonomyStrong similarities in morphology and genetics show that wild emmer (Triticum dicoccoides Koern.) is the wild ancestor of domesticated emmer (Triticum dicoccon). Because wild and domesticated emmer are interfertile with other tetraploid wheats, some taxonomists consider all tetraploid wheats to belong to one species, T. turgidum. Under this scheme, the two forms are recognized at subspecies level, thus T. turgidum subsp. dicoccoides and T. turgidum subsp. dicoccon. Either naming system is equally valid; the latter lays more emphasis on genetic similarities
Wild emmerWild emmer (Triticum dicoccoides) grows wild in the fertile crescent of the Near East. It is a tetraploid wheat formed by the hybridisation of two diploid wild grasses, Triticum urartu (closely related to wild einkorn, T. boeoticum), and an as yet unidentified Aegilops species related to A. searsii or A. speltoides.
MorphologyLike einkorn and spelt wheats, emmer is a hulled wheat. In other words, it has strong glumes (husks) that enclose the grains, and a semi-brittle rachis. On threshing, a hulled wheat spike breaks up into spikelets. These require milling or pounding to release the grains from the glumes.
HistoryWild emmer grains are found at the archaeological site of Ohalo II in Israel, which have an uncorrected radiocarbon dating of 17,000 BC, and at the Pre Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) site of Netiv Hagdud (10,000-9400 years ago), also in Israel. Domesticated emmer however does not appear until around 7700 BC, the uncorrected radiocarbon date of the earliest find spot, Tell Aswad, 25 kilometers southeast of Damascus. Emmer wheat and barley were the dominant crops of the ancient Near East, and spread in the Neolithic to Europe and the Indian subcontinent.
In the Near East, in southern Mesopotamia in particular, cultivation of emmer wheat began to decline in the Early Bronze Age, from about 3000 BC, and barley became the standard cereal crop. This has been related to increased salinization of irrigated alluvial soils, of which barley is more tolerant. Emmer had a special place in ancient Egypt, where it was the only wheat cultivated in Pharaonic times, even though neighbouring countries also cultivated einkorn, durum and common wheat. In the absence of any obvious functional explanation, this may simply reflect a marked culinary or cultural preference. Emmer and barley were the primary ingedients in ancient Egyptian bread and beer. In Morocco DNA results of the cereals at Volubilis indicates significant occurrence of hulled emmer.
Emmer wheat is mentioned in ancient rabbinic literature (as one of the five grains forbidden to Jews during Passover). It is often incorrectly translated as spelt in English translations of the rabbinic literature but spelt did not grow in ancient Israel and emmer was a significant crop until the end of the Iron Age. Likewise, references to emmer in Greek and Latin texts are traditionally translated as "spelt," even though spelt was not common in the Classical world until very late in its history.
In northeastern Europe, Emmer (in addition to Einkorn and barley) was one of the most important cereal species and this importance can be seen to increase from 3400 BC onwards. Pliny the Elder, notes that although emmer was called far in his time formerly it was called adoreum (or "glory"), providing an etymology explaining that emmer had been held in glory (N.H. 18.3), and later in the same book he describes its role in sacrifices.
CultivationWild wheat seeds (triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) were discovered to self-cultivate by propelling themselves mechanically into soils with their awns. During a period of increased humidity during the nighttimes, the seed's awns become erect and draw together, and in the process push the grain into the soil. During the daytime the humidity drops and the awns slacken back again; however fine silica hairs on the awns act as hooks in the soil and prevent the seeds from reversing back out again. During the course of alternating stages of daytime and nighttime humidity, the awns' air powered pumping movements, which resemble a swimming frog kick, will drill the grain as much as an inch or more into the soil.
Today emmer is primarily a relict crop in mountainous areas. Its value lies in its ability to give good yields on poor soils, and its resistance to fungal diseases such as stem rust that are prevalent in wet areas. Emmer is grown in Morocco, Spain (Asturias), the Carpathian mountains on the border of the Czech and Slovak republics, Albania, Turkey, Switzerland and Italy.
Italy is an interesting case as, uniquely, emmer cultivation is well established and even expanding. In the mountainous Garfagnana area of Tuscany emmer (known as farro) is grown by farmers as an IGP (Indicazione Geografica Protetta) product, with its geographic identity protected by law. Production is certified by a co-operative body, the Consorzio Produttori Farro della Garfagnana. IGP-certified farro is widely available in health food shops across Europe, and even in some British supermarkets. The demand for Italian farro has led to competition from non-certified farro, grown in lowland areas and often consisting of a different wheat species, spelt (Triticum spelta).
Food usesEmmer's main use is as a human food, though it is also used for animal feed. Ethnographic evidence from Turkey and other emmer-growing areas suggests that emmer makes good bread (judged by the taste and texture standards of traditional bread), and this is supported by evidence of its widespread consumption as bread in ancient Egypt. Emmer bread is widely available in Switzerland http://www.swissinfo.ch/ger/swissinfo.html?siteSect=601&sid=6120540&cKey=1128798224000&ty=st. In Italy farro is traditionally consumed as whole grains, in soup. Its use for making pasta is a recent response to the health food market; some judge that emmer pasta has an unattractive texture.
Emmer wheat is closely related to durum wheat and common wheat and is therefore unsuitable for sufferers from wheat allergies or coeliac disease.
- Domestication of plants in the Old World
- Hulled Wheats. Promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected crops. 4. Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Hulled Wheats 21-22 July 1995, Castelvecchio Pascoli, Tuscany, Italy[invalid link]
- Plants of the Bible Up-to-date reference to cereals in the Biblical world.
- Wheat evolution: integrating archaeological and biological evidence
- Alternative Wheat Cereals as Food Grains: Einkorn, Emmer, Spelt, Kamut, and Triticale
- Jacomet, S. 2006. Plant economy of the northern alpine lake dwellings - 3500-2400 cal. BC. Environmental Archaeology 11(1): 65-85
emmer in Asturian: Triticum dicoccoides
emmer in Danish: Emmer
emmer in German: Emmer (Getreide)
emmer in Spanish: Triticum dicoccum
emmer in French: Amidonnier
emmer in Italian: Triticum dicoccum
emmer in Georgian: ასლი
emmer in Latin: Far
emmer in Dutch: Emmertarwe